★ Polistes snelleni
But snelleni, Japanese paper wasps, the common species of social Wasp in Central and Northern Japan. P. snelleni is also found in Northern China, Korea and the Russian far East. Due to the different climate in these regions, P. snelleni are capable to adapt to different temperatures and climatic conditions. P. snelleni are typically located in hilly or foothill areas, so they klassificeret in a semi-highland category.
1. Systematics and phylogeny. (Систематика и филогения)
P. snelleni in the genus, but a subgenus Polistella, and paraphyletic subgenera. P. snelleni are most closely tied to, but the stigma bernadii. It is also closely related to but together. P. snelleni were explored next, but the Chinese vine, but biglumis for comparison, in the employee-employee conflict, which the other two are paper wasps.
2. Description and identification. (Описание и идентификация)
P. snelleni are black and yellow wasps. Queens are the largest species, workers, young Queens and males. Workers generally wore wings that distinguish them from young Queens. Weight new reproductive females young females is 102 mg. of Workers can be identified by the white creamy fat. Workers that have developed ovaries working, but not reproductive females.
Nests created by P. snelleni are made vertically. They usually consist of one comb. The crest is fan-shaped, and the pedicel attached to the basal cells. This kit allows the new cells to be added distally. The founding Queen uses twigs or the surface of the rock shelters as horizontal supports for the nest. Nest petioles of the stem perpendicular to these supports. These wasps occupy a vertical zone of 200-400 meters.
3. Distribution and habitat. (Распространение и места обитания)
P. snelleni are usually found in Japan and sometimes in China or Korea. They prefer grassy or shrubby places in areas with a temperate climate. Their nests are usually located on a southern slope in an area filled with small trees and a few weeds. These nests hung from small trees, often of larch, and usually hang on 20-60 cm above the ground. They nest on roadsides and rocks in the space under the eaves. The temperature in these places is rising in the daytime, because the stones absorb heat from the sun.
4. Colony cycle. (Колония цикла)
In the North of Japan near Sapporo, nests are covered with snow until early April. About 2 weeks later, one of the founders of the Queen arrives to start the nest, fall under the category of haplometrotic Foundation. The first worker in the nest appears at the beginning of July, and itll come up in a few days. Workers produce eggs that were laid in the beginning of the formation of the nest. The incubation period is about 60 days for the employee. P. snelleni only 5-15 working within the nest, was one of the smallest in Japan. Males in p. snelleni to appear after workers for 1-2 weeks, the cells that are separate from those that produce workers. There are about 10-20 males in the middle slot, which is only slightly more than the number of employees. Young Queens about 30-50 also during this time, in late July, in Northern Japan. In Central Japan, the young Queen came in about a month in mid-August. Reproductive females mate during the nesting season. These young ladies are especially aggressive. Sometimes that is the dwarf of the Queen, which arise in the nest that look like workers. These appear at the end of August, when there are only a few workers in the nest and the food supplies dwindled. These dwarf Queens have a low chance of mating, because most men died. Eggs and larvae disappear in mid and late August, respectively.
4.1. Colony cycle. The construction of the nest. (Строительство гнезда)
The pace of construction of the nest begins as a relatively high and then decreases with hatching larvae. However, during this time, the founding Queen only creates about one third of the total cells, and half of cocoon spinning cocoon 10 will not. The Queen uses paper for construction, collected from outside the nest or by taking it from the workers who picked it. This forceful action is called robbing the founding Queen, the workers resist it. Later, the pace of construction picks up again, in connection with the maturation of larvae and the spinning of the cocoon of the founding Queen. Then the level is constantly increasing, while the sign of the first workers arrival. During this time, until the first workers arrival, the Queen successfully creates more cells, which leads to a General construction about 70% of nests total number of cells. The superindividual stage, where the workers and Queen to live in harmony, to satisfy the needs of nesting, only lasts about a week. Once the workers are born, the third peak in the construction of the cells occurs, and about 15% of the cells produced by the workers, who had a few days to relax before work.
4.2. Colony cycle. Egg production. (Производство яиц)
The Queen lays less than 1.5 eggs per day on average. She lays eggs parallel to the construction of cells. She may lay two eggs in one cell, even if there are open cells in this case develops only one egg. However, not more than 20% of cells empty at the same time. However, do not use the Queen cell after the egg has occupied them.
5.1. Behavior. The division of labor. (Разделение труда)
Queens of p. snelleni to rise at dawn and cease activity at dusk. Queen start their activities only when their body temperature is quite high from getting sunlight. This may not happen right at dawn, but in the following months, when the temperature is higher, the Queen can start their activities earlier. The behavior of P. snelleni males and females are very different. The males rest in the socket and ask the workers for food, occasionally visiting flowers. Women, on the other hand, have different behaviors. Females rarely leave the brood, only occasionally to bring water to ventilate the nest on hot days. Food regurgitation is observed among women.
5.2. Behavior. Water transport. (Водного транспорта)
P. snelleni exist in temperate areas where there may be the cold and hot weather conditions. When the temperature gets hot, as is often the case in Japan during the summer months when the P. snelleni nests in paper wasps of the existence of the need to take measures to cool the nest. Water transport in the socket occurs after the larvae hatch, and once it starts, it happens about 10-15 times in a row. Drops of water by wasps and put on the concave roof of the nest. This helps in cooling the nest. When there is a shadow on the nest, the wasps move water and discard.
6.1. Interaction with other species. Diet. (Диета)
The founding Queen of a nest is in the process of first hunting, then the disposition of the production, transport, other dispositions, and then lastly giving food for the larvae. The larvae feed on animal food. The Queen finds the prey in a single flight from the nest, which usually lasts 10-30 minutes. The Queen sucks the liquid from the pellets on the nest or nearby, and feeds the young larvae. Feeding is carried out with an antenna inserted in the cell where the larva. There is the dry residue left from the cakes, which the Queen eats or throws. When there are different ages of larvae is present, the cakes, the first for older larvae, then the Queen gives the rest of the liquid to the larvae, both young and old.
6.2. Interaction with other species. Parasitoidism
P. snelleni host for parasitic Wasp Elasmus rossis, fewer types of OS. Adults of E. however, sit on leaves and twigs near nests of P. snelleni, and fly around the nest. When P. snelleni to note that E. however, it is near the nest, they flutter their wings and dart to the ridge. Sometimes, of P. snelleni to bite and kill E. rossis. P. snelleni to recognize parasitized cells in their nests and the remains of the host is a parasite. It is beneficial for P. snelleni to kill parasitic larvae because adult E. rossis can reparasitize nest.
7.1. The worker Queen conflict. The orphan colony. (Сиротские колонии)
The orphan colony of colonies that are served by workers after the Queen left the nest. Orphaned workers have the ability to mate and produce female offspring, but they only begin to lay eggs after the Queen had disappeared. It is unique in p. snelleni. Lost workers can act mainly as replacement Queens, because they can inhibit binding to other employees and founders of the Queens. It was said that P. snelleni switches to sequential polygyny, but it was denied because by that time the new reproductive females are ready to breed, the season ends. Thus, it can only happen through several replacements of the Queen. There are usually 1-2 laying workers, the elderly in these childrens colonies. The dominant laying of workers in a nest have a monopoly on oviposition by selective egg eating.
7.2. The worker Queen conflict. Conflict over egg laying. (Конфликт из-за откладки яиц)
Since the founding Queens of P. snelleni are likely to disappear, it is necessary that these workers have lost the ability to reproduce females for future generations to exist. There is social tension over reproduction between Queens and workers because of this, where Queens monopolize egg production until they are in the nest.
Queens of P. snelleni produce males before females, which is called protandrous production. This is due to sexual selection for an optimal balance between the sexes, and so there is a higher fitness for all. Due to the protandrous production, lost labor selected for the production of offspring as they breed so late in the season. They mate to make a diploid offspring.
7.3. The worker Queen conflict. The productivity of the colony. (Продуктивность колонии)
Climate is a key factor that has been studied in the performance of colonies of P. snelleni. Because there is always one founding Queen in p. snelleni nest, the denominator of the productivity of the colony is always the same. Performance was sharply different with a couple of very large nests, which were found in Kanto, Japan. These nests were hundreds of cells in comparison with typically 100 cells. In these nests, there was a female-biased sex ratio, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the availability of resources. This hypothesis States that colonies with better resources should be more women on the basis of. The numbers of the first worker brood in the nests were not more than other nests, but there were a lot more women, so the sex ratio is strongly female.
8. Special socket. (Специальный разъем)
A special case of the nest observed in Mt. Hakken-Zan in the summer months of 1968 showed two Queens share one nest. This nest was unsuccessful, as predicted. It is unclear if the nest was an instance of temporary pleometrosis, where two ladies to cooperate in the initial stages of construction of the nest and then leaves. On the other hand, multi-comb nest was found with one Queen in Tokyo in 1980. In the nest sat on the wire, and two stalks was only 13 mm from each other. This nest was founded by the worker, unlike the well-known fact that P. snelleni nests are based on a single Queen. Worker brood reared in the combs at the same time. Early developing males often were seen around this nest, so it is assumed that the employee who created the nest copulated with at least one of the first promising men.
9. Earlier emerging males. (Раньше развивающиеся самцы)
It is known that the founding Queen of a nest produces her first brood to be workers. In research on early emerging males in this initial brood of workers, many comments were accepted. First, the possibility of sibling mating was quite high in the nests where there were early emerging males. No early developing males are diploid in chromosome number. So, in early developing males are haploid, number of chromosomes in the haploid set to be 30. This was in contrast to the previously known data, where the number of haploid chromosomes was set at 13. These chromosomes are observed Meta or submetacentrics. The socket where it used to appear in men a high probability of mating between these males and the workers of the same brood. Further studies should be conducted to study this problem.
- sikorae Polistes similis Polistes simillimus Polistes simulatus Polistes smithii Polistes snelleni Polistes stabilinus Polistes stenopus Polistes stigma
- Polistes biglumis is a species of social wasp within Polistes the most common genus of paper wasp. It is distinguished mainly by its tendency to reside
- Polistes chinensis is a polistine vespid wasp in the cosmopolitan genus Polistes and is commonly known as the Asian, Chinese or Japanese paper wasp. It
- They are in the subgenus Polistella within Polistes A close relative within this subgenus is P. snelleni They are primitively eusocial wasps. P. japonicus
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